Unit 1: Kitchen Organization Structure
1.1 Organization chart
1.2 Pastry Department
Bread Baker: prepares breads including such breakfast items as brioche, croissants, and Danish pastry
Frozen dessert maker: usually makes ice cream and other frozen desserts
Confectioner: prepares confectionary/sweets/desserts
Decorator: prepares showpieces, sugar work, and decorated cakes
Unit 2: Workplace Hygiene
Food production staff needs to be clean and tidy. It gives good impression and protect food from contamination.
Kitchen uniform is usually white and it projects cleanliness. Kitchen hat, scarf and apron are part of the uniform. Non slip shoes, boots or safety shoes to be worn.
Hands must be clean at all times. Wash hands frequently throughout the day. Always wash hands;
Starting work, touching raw food or high risk food.
Handling raw and cooked food.
Handling raw food.
Handling raw eggs in their shells.
Coughing or sneezing into hands or handkerchief.
Touching hair of face.
After cleaning jobs or touching containers of cleaning chemicals.
Handling rubbish/waste bins.
Eating, drinking and smoking.
Bacteria live on and under straps and rings. Gemstones and small parts can drop into food. So no wristwatch and jewelry allowed except for wedding ring.
Cuts and Spots
Cuts, burns and sores must be covered with waterproof dressing.
Must be kept antiseptic to prevent spreading bacteria and protect wound.
You must not work with food if you have certain illness.
Ear, eye and nose discharges
Cut, wound and other skin problem and so on.
It can contaminate food.
- Pick nose or wipe nose on sleeve
- Cough or sneeze over food
- Test food with fingers or with a spoon that has not been washed thoroughly between each tasting.
- Blow or breathe on glassware or cutlery to help polish them
- Handle food without first washing your hands
- Smoking in the kitchen
- Must wash regularly and kept covered while handling food.
- Keep hair free from dandruff.
- Men’s hair must be kept short. Women’s hair must be covered with hair net.
- Never scratch and touch hair in the kitchen.
- They are carrier of bacteria.
- Must be kept short and clean.
Unit 3: Baking and Pastry Equipment
3.1 Large Equipment
3.2 Pan, container and mould
3.3 Hand Tools
Unit 4: Ingredients
Bread Flour: made from hard wheat has enough good-quality gluten to make it ideal for yeast breads.
Cake Flour: Cake flour is a weak or low-gluten flour made from soft wheat. It has a soft, smooth texture and a pure white color. Cake flour is used for cakes and other delicate baked goods.
Pastry Flour: Pastry flour is also a weak or low-gluten flour, but it is slightly stronger than cake flour. It has the creamy white color of patent flour rather than the pure white of cake flour. Pastry flour is used for pie doughs and for some cookies, biscuits, and muffins.
Whole wheat flour: made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.
Dark rye flour. Like clear flour milled from wheat, dark rye comes from the part of the rye grain closest to the bran. Thus, it is darker than other rye flours and has a lower percentage of fine starch particles.
Sugars or sweetening agents have the following purposes in baking:
- They add sweetness and flavor.
- They create tenderness and fineness of texture, partly by weakening the gluten structure.
- They give crust color.
- They increase keeping qualities by retaining moisture.
- They act as creaming agents with fats and as foaming agents with eggs.
- They provide food for yeast
Regular granulated sugar, also called fine granulated sugar or table sugar, is the most familiar and the most commonly used.
Very fine and ultrafine sugars (also called caster sugar) are finer than regular granulated sugar. They are prized for making cakes and cookies because they produce a more uniform batter and can support higher quantities of fat.
Sanding sugars are coarse and are used for coating cookies, cakes, and other products.
Pearl sugar is a type of sanding sugar. It consists of opaque, white grains and does not easily dissolve in water. This characteristic, as well as its appearance, makes it useful for decorating sweet dough products. Pearl sugar is also called sugar nibs.
The major functions of fats in baked items are:
- To add moistness and richness.
- To increase keeping quality.
- To add flavor.
- To assist in leavening when used as a creaming agent, or to give flakiness to puff pastry, pie dough, and similar products
Any fat acts as a shortening in baking because it shortens gluten strands and tenderizes the product. However, we generally use the word shortening to mean any of a group of solid fats, usually white and tasteless, that are especially formulated for baking. Shortenings generally consist of nearly 100% fat.
Butter has two major advantages:
- Flavor. Shortenings are intentionally flavorless, but butter has a highly desirable flavor.
- Melting qualities. Butter melts in the mouth. Shortenings do not. After eating pastries or icings made with shortening, one can be left with an unpleasant film of shortening coating the mouth.
Milk and milk products
Fresh Milk Products
Whole milk is fresh milk as it comes from the cow, with nothing removed.
Skim or nonfat milk has had most or all of the fat removed.
Low-fat milk has a fat content of 0.5 to 2%.
Fresh cream products
- Light whipping cream (30 to 35%) fat
- Heavy whipping cream (36% or more)
- Light cream, also called table cream or coffee cream, contains 18 to 30% fat
- Half-and-half has a fat content of 10 to 18%, too low to be called cream.
Yeast is the leavening agent in breads, dinner rolls, Danish pastries, and similar products.
- Fresh yeast, also called compressed yeast, is moist and perishable. It is usually purchased in 1-pound (454-g) cakes. Under refrigeration and carefully wrapped to avoid drying, fresh yeast lasts up to two weeks. For longer storage (up to four months), it may be frozen.
- Active dry yeast is a dry, granular form of yeast. It must be rehydrated in four times its weight of warm water (105°F/41°C) before use. When using active dry yeast in a bread formula, use part of the water in the formula to dissolve the yeast. Do not add additional water. About 25% of the yeast cells in active dry yeast are dead, due to the harsh conditions of the drying process. The presence of the dead cells can have a negative effect on dough quality.
- Instant dry yeast, sometimes called rapid-rise or quick-rise yeast. Like active dry yeast, it is also a dry granular form of yeast, but it does not have to be dissolved in water before use. It can be added in its dry form because it absorbs water much more quickly than regular dry yeast.
Baking soda is the chemical sodium bicarbonate. If moisture and an acid are present, soda releases carbon dioxide gas, which leavens the product.
Baking powders are mixtures of baking soda plus one or more acids to react with it.
Baking is Love made edible.
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